When cells in the prostate gland begin to grow out of control, prostate cancer develops. The prostate gland is exclusively present in men. It produces some of the fluid found in sperm.
The prostate is located underneath the bladder (a hollow organ that stores urine) and in front of the rectum (the last part of the intestines). Seminal vesicles, located just behind the prostate, produce the majority of the fluid for semen. The urethra, the tube that transports urine and sperm out of the body through the penis, runs through the prostate's core. The prostate's size might vary as a man gets older. It is roughly the size of a walnut in younger men, but it can be much more significant in elderly guys.
If you are having symptoms of prostate cancer and need consultation regarding the same, you can visit one of the best and renowned urologists Dr. Mishra for prostate cancer treatment in Bhubaneshwar.
Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer
This section discusses the types of prostate cancer therapies that are considered standard of care. "Standard of care" refers to the most effective therapies available.
- Active surveillance and watchful waiting
A doctor may prescribe active monitoring or careful waiting if prostate cancer is early, developing slowly, and treating cancer might cause more difficulties than the illness itself.
- Treatments are carried out on a local level
Cancer is eradicated from a specific, confined area of the body using local therapies. Surgical and radiation therapy are examples of such therapies. Local therapies for early-stage prostate cancer may be able to eradicate the malignancy. If the disease has progressed beyond the prostate gland, systemic therapies (described below) may be required to eliminate cancer cells in other regions of the body.
During surgery, the prostate and several lymph nodes in the surrounding area are removed. A surgical oncologist is a physician who specializes in the surgical treatment of cancer. A urologist, sometimes known as a urologic oncologist, is the surgical oncologist who treats prostate cancer. The type of surgery is determined by the disease's stage, the patient's overall condition, and other variables.
- Radiation therapy
The use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells is known as radiation therapy. A radiation oncologist is a doctor who specializes in treating cancer patients using radiation treatment. A radiation therapy regimen, often known as a schedule, comprises a specified number of treatments administered over a set amount of time.
- Focal therapies
Focal therapies are less invasive treatments that target small prostate cancers while leaving the rest of the prostate gland unaffected. These therapies, which are primarily for low-risk or intermediate-risk prostate cancer, employ heat, cold, and other techniques to treat cancer. Clinical studies are being conducted on focal treatments. The majority of them haven't been authorized as conventional treatments.
- Systemic treatments
The use of medicines to kill cancer cells is known as systemic treatment. A medical oncologist, a clinician specializing in using medications to treat cancer, usually prescribes systemic therapies.
An intravenous (IV) tube, which is inserted into a vein with a needle, or a tablet or capsule that is ingested, are two common ways to administer systemic treatments (orally).
The following are examples of systemic treatments for prostate cancer:
- Bone-stretching medications
- Hormonal therapy
Because androgens, which are male sex hormones, stimulate prostate cancer growth, decreasing their levels can help delay the disease's progression. Testosterone is the most prevalent androgen. Hormonal treatment lowers testosterone levels in the body by physically removing the testicles, known as surgical castration, or taking medicines that disable the testicles' function, known as medical castration. It is less crucial whatever hormonal treatment is utilized than the primary objective of decreasing testosterone levels. Other names for this treatment are androgen-deprivation therapy and androgen-replacement therapy (ADT).
If the therapy fails,
Cancer may be classified as advanced or terminal if it cannot be treated or managed. This is a distressing diagnosis, and advanced cancer may be difficult to discuss for many individuals. However, it's critical to have open and honest discussions with your healthcare provider about your thoughts, choices, and concerns. The healthcare staff has specialized skills, expertise, and experience to assist patients and their families. It is critical to ensure that a person is physically comfortable, pain-free, and emotionally supported.